Sapphire (Greek: sappheiros, ‘blue stone’) is a gemstone variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide (α-Al2O3). Trace amounts of elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, copper, or magnesium can give corundum respectively blue, yellow, purple, orange, or green color. Chromium impurities in corundum yield pink or red tint, the latter being called ruby.

The main gemstone colors in addition to blue Sapphire include:
– Yellow Sapphire (sometimes also called “Golden Sapphire” if intensely colored)
– Pink Sapphire
– White Sapphire (describes Sapphire that is colorless)
– Green Sapphire
– Purple Sapphire
– Orange Sapphire
– Black Sapphire